Preface  Introduction  Contents  

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Introduction

This is a new, substantially recast and fully updated edition of a reference resource first published in 1996 under the title Publishing and Book Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Annotated Bibliography (co-edited with Cécile Lomer), and which in turn was based on the earlier Publishing and Book Development in Africa: A Bibliography/L'édition et le développement du livre en Afrique: une bibliographie, published in UNESCO'S "Studies on Books and Reading Series" in 1984. It charts the growth of publishing and book development in the countries of Africa south of the Sahara, covering all segments of publishing and the book trade, as well as including a large number of entries on many other topics as they relate to books and reading in Africa.

This edition contains over 2,500 entries, of which more than 60% are new entries, the majority of them published during the period from 1996 through to the end of 2007. Most of the material listed is in English, but there are also a considerable number of citations in French and on publishing and the book sector in the francophone nations of Africa. 

Material is arranged under five main sections, and is extensively cross-referenced throughout. It is indexed by author and now includes an improved and expanded subject index, and an index of organizations and associations, to further enhance the bibliography's utility. 

As well as including a very large number of articles, books, and other material published since publication of the previous edition, this new edition now also contains a substantial number of entries covering articles, reports and other documents that are available online, most of them freely accessible. 

Sources used
In addition to listing over 1,600 entirely new citations, the new edition of the bibliography brings together and cumulates material previously included in these sources, although many items listed in the 1996 bibliography have now been dropped, for the reasons set out in the Preface.

(i) Publishing and Book Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Annotated Bibliography (with Cécile Lomer), London: Hans Zell Publishers, an imprint of Bowker-Saur, 1996. (ii) A Bibliography of Publishing and the Book Chain in Sub-Saharan Africa-1996, London: Association for the Development of Education in Africa, Working Group on Books and Learning Materials (Perspectives on African Book Development, 3), 1997. (iii) A Bibliography of Publishing and the Book Chain in Sub-Saharan Africa-1997, London: Association for the Development of Education in Africa, Working Group on Books and Learning Materials (Perspectives on African Book Development, 6), 1998; as well as (iv) material listed in the select bibliography in chapter 18 of The African Publishing Companion: A Resource Guide, Lochcarron: Hans Zell Publishing, 2002. (This resource did not include country-specific studies or articles, and no further editions have been published.)

New material, most of which the compiler has personally acquired for examination and abstracting purposes, has been tracked down by a wide scan of bibliographies, indexing services, databases, and online library catalogues. This has included, for example, the annual Africa Bibliography, The African Book Publishing Record, African Studies Abstracts/African Studies Abstracts Online, International African Bibliography, the Quarterly Index to African Periodical Literature published by the Library of Congress Office in Nairobi, as well as the OCLC's massive WorldCat database. Extensive searches on Google, using a combination of search strategies, have also been conducted and have helped to locate quite a significant number of reports and documents (many of them available online) not picked up by any of the major bibliographic or indexing databases. 

Scope and type of material included
This new edition covers primarily material published over the last 28 years, from 1980 through to the end of 2007, although some key literature published before 1980 has been retained because of its historical importance. This includes a number of seminal studies on particular aspects of publishing and book development in Africa, for example in the area of scholarly publishing, or publishing for children. Also retained are some early studies that have appeared in the University of Toronto Press journal Scholarly Publishing, later Journal of Scholarly Publishing (161), as well as all articles published in the quarterly African Book Publishing Record/ABPR (168) since it started publication in 1975. Complete runs of back issues of both journals are readily available in many academic libraries. (ABPR is published in print format only to vol. 26, 2000; print and online as from vol. 27, 2001.)

As mentioned in the Preface, a substantial number of entries in the previous edition (a total of 1,362) have been dropped - for example short reports and profiles, unpublished conference and workshop papers, or articles which are now very dated - and much greater emphasis is now placed on the relative significance of the material included.

The bibliography aims to cover all aspects of book publishing and the book chain in Africa, book marketing and distribution, and the retail book trade on the continent. Additionally, there are numerous citations on more specialist areas of publishing, such as publishing for children, journal and magazine publishing, scholarly publishing, publishing in African languages, women in African publishing and publishing by and for women, as well as digital media and electronic publishing; and there are many sections on complementary aspects of book development, for example authors and publishing, copyright (primarily as it relates to books, and rights of authors), national book policies, training for book industry personnel, and there are select references to reading in Africa and the promotion of a culture of reading. The bibliography also includes many citations on a number of other related topics, such as book assistance and donation programmes, the acquisition of African-published material, African books in the international market place, and publishing (in Africa and elsewhere) of African writers and African literature. There are separate sections devoted to two of Africa's major book trade organizations, the African Publishers Network/APNET (5), and the Oxford-based African Books Collective Ltd/ABC (3). A further separate section is devoted to articles and other material about Africa's premier book prize, the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa (98)

The bibliography includes books, reports and surveys, papers in edited collections, periodical articles, book sector studies and similar documents, government and official publications, as well as a number of theses and dissertations, some of which are now freely accessible online as full-text documents or e-theses. 

African book trade journals
In addition to the (currently dormant) African Publishing Review (129) published by the African Publishers Network (5), there are a number of other African book trade journals and magazines, or newsletters published by book professional associations. However, most of them are published very irregularly and it has been difficult to verify their current availability status, and acquiring new issues published over the last ten years or more. Some of them may contain important contributions on particular aspects of the book sector in specific African countries, or carrying articles on related issues such as national book policies, copyright, book piracy, etc., but unfortunately they are rarely available as part of serial holdings at major academic libraries or as part of African studies library collections in the countries of the North. In view of this there may well be some gaps in the literature covered.

Arrangement and classification 
Arrangement of entries is in alphabetical order by author (or editor/compiler, or title for serials). Books or articles by the same person are arranged chronologically by date of publication. Capitalization for entries in English follows humanities (or headline) style. Author headings have been standardized as far as possible.

Entries are grouped under five major sections: (1) Serials and reference; (2) General, comparative and regional studies; (3) Country studies; (4) Studies by topic, listing material under 30 subject headings, and (5) Book industry training/Self-publishing, which also includes handbooks for authors. 

Listings for each country in Section 3 are part directory and part bibliography, and are subdivided by (i) Associations and book-related organizations in each country, where they exist; (ii) National bibliography, books in print, and book trade directories, where available, and (iii) country-specific books, articles, reports, and interviews. However, for several African countries there is very little published literature, and for some (Chad, Mauritania, and Niger) there would appear to be no literature of any kind on publishing and the book sector.

Books and articles that primarily offer overviews of publishing and the state of the book in a particular country or region (e.g. book sector studies, articles on national book policies, biographical accounts or interviews with prominent members of the book professions), are classified under country or region. 
It is important to note that, as a general rule, most articles on particular topics or areas of the book trade, e.g. bookselling, publishing for children, publishing in African languages, copyright, marketing, scholarly publishing, etc. are classified under topic, but are indexed both by topic and by country (or region). For example, an article on publishing and marketing of African language materials in Cameroon will appear in the section 'Publishing in African languages'; a study on publishing for children in Uganda will appear under 'Children's book publishing'; or an examination of young people's reading habits in South Africa will appear under 'Reading culture and reading promotion'.

Section 2 includes a number of entries on general or comparative studies on publishing in developing countries or the 'Third World', but it should be noted that this is merely a small selection of the relevant literature. 

In Section 4, Studies by topic, a number of the topic headings include explanatory notes on scope, limitations and exclusions for each section and a series of cross references guide the user to related topics. 

A complete list of periodicals cited in the new edition of the bibliography appears on pp. xxix-xxxvi. 

Material excluded
Short articles, reports, and news items of a page or two (or less than 1,500 words) - such as reports about conferences, workshops, seminars, book fairs, book prizes and awards, or general book trade news - that have appeared in e.g. The African Book Publishing Record, African Publishing Review the Bellagio Publishing Network Newsletter, BookLinks, Publishers Weekly, or the UK trade journal The Bookseller, are not included for the most part. The exceptions are items that are of continuing and/or special interest, and short articles or overviews of publishing and the state of the book in some of the smaller countries in Africa, for which very little literature on the book sector currently exists. 

While newspaper articles are also excluded, an excellent source for newspaper reports and stories on the book industries in Africa is the Washington-based news service AllAfrica.com (154). It also offers links to news stories about book launches, book promotional or literary events, and news items about book awards and prizes that have appeared in online African newspapers.

Literature on the following topics is excluded: authorship (except as it relates to African authors and their relationship with publishers); censorship; newspaper publishing, mass media and communication; literature on library services and information provision in Africa, or more special topics such as that of the South-North flow of information, or preserving and protecting indigenous knowledge systems. Also excluded are articles and studies on writing generally, e.g. writing learning materials, or writing for specific audiences, such as writing for children. While there is a section on reading and reading promotion, books and articles devoted to literacy, teaching reading, or developing reading skills, are not included.

General articles on good practice in publishing (including editing, marketing, production, etc.), for example those that have appeared in the African Publishing Review (129) and in the magazines of some African book trade associations, are not included. However, articles on training for the African book professions, and training manuals and resources, are listed in Section 5.

Open access publishing
The topic of open access publishing for or in developing countries has generated a great deal of debate and a very substantial number of papers and studies have been published in recent years. While this new edition includes a section on open access publishing, it is restricted to articles and papers about open access initiatives and projects that deal, in whole or in part, with open access, or open access models, for African scholarly publishing. 

More general articles about open content, open access movements, open source software, or open access for e-learning are not included, nor are those that deal with open access publishing in the developing world generally. 

Annotations and abstracts
Annotations, or in many cases full abstracts, are included for most of the literature, except for a small number of entries for which it was not possible to obtain and/or examine a copy of the document. This includes documents or mission reports with limited or restricted circulation, for example a series of book sector studies on individual African countries commissioned by donors, the World Bank (124), the UK Overseas Development Administration, or private consulting firms. 

Where author-prepared abstracts were available these have been used in preference, although usually edited or cut in length.

While some of the annotations are of a more descriptive nature, many of them aim to provide critical analysis - especially for the more recent literature - and attention is drawn to particularly important contributions to the literature on publishing and the book in Africa.

Citation of reviews
As a new feature in this edition, references to reviews of some of the book titles and edited collections are now included, notably those which have appeared in journals such as the quarterly African Book Publishing Record (168) (in its "Professional reading" review columns), African Publishing Review (129), African Research & Documentation (150), Africana Libraries Newsletter (149), the Bellagio Publishing Network Newsletter (155), Logos. Forum for the World Book Community (160), and occasional reviews in other journals, such as Publishing Research Quarterly. Additionally, there are a small number or reviews that have appeared in African studies and professional library journals, and online reviews published in the H-Net H-Africa reviews discussion forums. Usefully, many of the reviews in the Bellagio Publishing Network Newsletter are also available online, although in view of the uncertain future status of this currently dormant network organization, this may not continue indefinitely.

Material available online
This new edition now includes a substantial number of articles, reports, and other documents and resources that are available online. A total of almost 500 online resources are cited, the majority of them freely accessible. This includes a number of presentations available online in PowerPoint formats. All URLs for freely accessible resources have been checked up to March 2008, and the date last accessed/verified is indicated for each entry, in square brackets. Changes in URLs which come to our attention will be updated in the electronic version of the bibliography. To report any dead links please email .

All journals indicated in bold italics type face in the list of periodicals cited on p. xxix are available online, or back issues are partially available online covering the most recent volumes. For many journals published by commercial publishers that are available online a subscription is usually required. However, in most cases online access is possible by authorized users at academic institutions whose libraries subscribe to the journal, and this also applies for back issue articles which are available via JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/ (and see also JSTOR African Access Initiative below). Alternatively, articles can usually be purchased for a modest document delivery fee and paid by credit card. 

Online access to the full text of the current issues of many scholarly print/online journals is available to subscribers to Project Muse http://muse.jhu.edu/.  

URLs for articles available online are only indicated for freely accessible documents, for Logos. Forum for the World Book Community (160), and for a number of commercially published journals, e.g. Learned Publishing, which offer free access to a select number of back issues. (Note: from January 2008 articles in Learning Publishing will be made freely available 12 months after their first publication.) 

JSTOR African Access Initiative
As part of JSTOR's (Journal STORage) mission to create an archive of scholarly literature and extend access to the archive as broadly as possible, it has recently adopted a plan to waive participation fees for any academic or not-for-profit institution on the continent of Africa. 

For more details, and instructions for initiating participation, visit http://www.jstor.org/page/info/participate/new/fees/africanAccess.jsp.

Associations and organizations
A directory of African-based, continent-wide and regional book trade and allied associations is included on pp. 1-8. This is followed by a separate directory (pp. 9-45) listing the principal agencies, donors, foundations, and other organizations that have supported (and/or are currently supporting) the book sector and library development in Africa, in one form or another. This includes those supporting textbook development and provision, book industry training, those providing support for African writers or writers' groups, as well as book charities and the major book assistance and donation programmes. It also covers some agencies that have provided assistance in the area of scholarly communication, and a number of organizations that have been supportive of publishing and book development in Africa by means other than financial assistance, for example networks of librarians and Africanist library groups.

National African book trade associations and book-related organizations, where they exist, are listed under country headings in Section 3, giving full address details, email addresses, Web sites where available, and contact information. This includes publishers' and booksellers' associations, book development councils, and other book promotional bodies, as well as reproduction and literary rights organizations, and authors' and writers' groups of various kinds. 

As far as has been possible all information has been verified, although several associations and organizations failed to respond to requests to verify information for currency and accuracy. In view of this a proportion of entries may be dated, or the organizations may be currently dormant.

Book trade directories, books in print, and national bibliographies 
Entries for national book trade directories and books in print, where they exist, are also listed under country headings in Section 3, as are national bibliographies. However, the present state of national bibliographies in sub-Saharan Africa presents a dismal picture, and a large number of them are very irregularly published, are currently dormant, or have ceased publication altogether. Usually published by the national libraries or public library boards in each African country - sadly, many of them shamefully underfunded by their governments - they are published on a regular basis in less than ten countries at this time.

Cross-referencing and indexes
There is extensive cross-referencing between entries (or cross-references to organizations and associations) by means of boldface type marked with an arrow symbol. In the electronic version the cross-references lead directly to the entry as a hyperlink.

Three indexes are included: (i) an author index, also including selected titles, such as serial titles listed as main entries, e.g. African book trade journals and national bibliographies, and titles of reference works such as books in print; (ii) a combined subject/geographical index, together with (iii) an index of organizations and associations. 

Although the main arrangement of the bibliography, together with its system of cross-references, already provides access to countries, regions, or topics, the subject index is intended to provide a variety of additional means of access. References are to item numbers.

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